Words from Ancient Greece Test Review
PowerPoint, Oct., 2012

  Vocabulary of Ancient Greece
  • Strait 
  • Polis:  A city or a city-state    Political Science, politics, political   
  • Oligarchy: Rule by the few, (often meant selfish and greedy rule)
  • Phalanx  military formation where soldiers huddle together using shields
  • Acropolis: “Acro” means top   “Polis” means city, city-state   Acropolis is the city on the hill. This is where the temples were. The main city was on lower, flat ground.
  • Monarchy  A government ruled by a KING!
  • Aristocracy:   “aris” best  “ocracy” to rule   Aristocracy is rule by the best people, who are usually wealthy (have land) and educated
  • Democracy and Direct Democracy:   “Demos” = Greek for people  Cracy = to rule   Democracy is rule by the people…
     Direct democracy is when each citizen has a vote and a hand in running the government
  • Tyrant: Person who gains power by force, and usually rules unfairly and cruelly
  • Legislature: The people who make laws   “legis” = laws
  • 5.1 People of the Aegean and The Trojan War
  • A. Minoan Civilization
     Crete was home to a brilliant early civilization
     Called Minoans, named after Minos, a legendary king of Crete
     Their success was based on trade
     Vast palace at Knossos
     Women had freedoms
     By 1400 BC the civilization ended
  • B. Rulers of Mycenae
    The Mycenaeans conquered Greek mainland and then Crete
    Dominated the area 1400-1200 BC
    They lived in city-states
    Went to war with Troy, 1250 BC
    Ten year war, ended with Trojan Horse
    Heinrich Sliemann excavated ancient Troy, evidence that it was not legend.
  • C. The Age of Homer
    The Dorians invaded Greece from the north.
    From 1100 to 800 BC Greece went backward
    Two great Greek epics from this era, by Homer, the Iliad and Odyssey.
    These poem/stories reveal much about the Greeks: the heroes, like Achilles, display courage, honor, eloquence…
    Agamemnon wanted Troy; so he agreed to help Menelaus go get his wife Helen back
  • The geography

5.2 Sparta and Athens

Government: 2 kings and council
Society: Militaristic, rigid, down on wealth and trade, rigorous
Women: trained to exercise
Gov: moved toward democracy
Society: Progressive, cultured (Solon outlawed debt slavery) Nobles rule
Women: no share in public life
  • 5.3 Wars and Golden Age
    Persian Wars- A war with Greeks united against an enemy
    Peloponnesian Wars - A war with Greeks fighting among themselves
    Greek trade - colonies
    Greek colonies were threatened by Persia
    Greeks in Ionia rebelled in 499 BC
    Persians crushed the rebel cities
    Darius sends fleet to punish Athens, landing at Marathon, 2-1 outnumbering Greeks
    Pheidippides sent 26.2 miles to Athens
    Pesians returned under Xerxes, 480 BC
  • Persian War
    Persia marched and burned Athens, but the Greek fleet rammed the Persians and sank fleet
    Athens emerged powerful
    Formed Delian League
  • Age of Pericles 460 BC - 429 BC
    Direct democracy -- all males should take part
    Not taking interest in public affairs was a crime
    P hired best architects and scholars
    P turned Athens into the cultural center of G
  • Peloponnesian War
    Athens v Sparta
    Atrocities; Sparta even allied with Persia
    404 BC, Sparta captured Athens, with help of Persia!
    End of Athenian greatness
    Sparta soon suffered defeat by Thebes
  • 5.4 Greek Philosophers
    Socrates: wrote no books (Crito, et. al., Plato writes Socratic dialogues…)
    Plato: The Republic, set up the Academy
    Aristotle: The Lyceum (his pupil, Alexander…)
  • Philosophers
    Some Greek thinkers denied that events were caused by the whims of the gods.
    They used observation and reason to find causes for what happened
    These were philosophers, “lovers of wisdom”
    They explored math, physics, music, logic, moral behavior
    These are the roots of modern science
  • The Sophists
    Questioned accepted ideas about truth and justice:
    Success is more important than morality
    They urged students to develop skills in rhetoric, the art of skillful speaking
    Many young Athenians followed the Sophists because of the turmoil of the Peloponnesan War
    Socrates condemned the Sophists for undermining traditional values.
  • Socrates
    “The unexamined life is not worth living.”
    Challenged all around him to examine their beliefs and ideas.
    He was put on trial for corrupting the city’s youth, and
    Failing to respect the gods
    Socrates drinks hemlock
  • Plato..Ideas About Government
    Plato left Athens for 10 years after the death of Socrates
    When he returned he set up the Academy
    Emphasized the importance of reason
  • In The Republic:(The book by Plato...)
  • State should regulate citizens’ lives
  • Children should be raised communally
  • Workers, soldiers, philosopher-kings
  • Talented women should be educated
  • Aristotle
    Analyzed governments
    Monarchy. Rule by a king
    Aristocracy. Rule by the talented, the elite
    Democracy. Could lead to mob rule
    In the end he favored rule by a single strong and virtuous leader
    People ought to live by the “golden mean”, between the extremes
    Reason should be the guiding force
    The first universities in Europe 1500 years later were based on Aristotle.

    Raphael’s “The School of Athens” 
  • Plato
    Taught every object on earth had an ideal form.
  • Greek Art and Literature
  • The work of Greek artists reflected the same concern with form and order.
    The Parthenon dedicated to Athena
    Sculpture was realistic, yet idealistic, showing men in their most perfect form
    All this is called Classical Greek
  • Greek Drama - Tragedies
    Aeschylus. Oresteia. On the Trojan War…pride can bring misfortune, the gods can bring down the greatest heroes
    Sophocles. Antigone. Antigone is put to death for burying her brother. Duty to god versus human law.
    Euripides. Trojan Women. Did not glamorize war, showed how women suffered.
    (Comedy: Aristophanes’ Lysistrata)
  • Writing of History
    Herodotus. “Father of History” Researched many lands.
    Thucydides. Wrote about the Peloponnesian War; savagery and corrupting influence on both sides.
    These historians taught research and avoiding bias.
  • 5.5 Alexander the Great
    Key point: Alexander is the father of Hellenistic culture…
    Philip of Macedonia was bringing Greece under his rule
    He hired Aristotle to tutor his son Alexander
    Philip made alliances with some Greek city states
    He wanted to conquer Persia, but was killed
    Pupil of Aristotle
    Fulfilled his father's ambition to invade Persia
    Never lost a battle
    His soldiers would not go beyond the Indus River
  • Alexander
    "To the strongest!"
    Next 300 years they competed for power
    Founded many new cities...Grecians came to them
    Blending..Aristotle married a Persian
    Hellenistic: Greek, Persian, Indian, Egyptian
    Hellenestic Civilization
    Alexander: Encouraged learning and the arts
    Pharos in Alexandria Egypt 440'
    Built the Museum zoo, university labs, library
    The political turmoil of Hellenistic age led to ..
  • Stoicism, founded by Zeno
    All people are equal, even if unequal in society