Key Highlights from Chapter 18, The Enlightenment
Put an “X” in the column of the era which was
characterized by the item:
18.1 Philosophers in the Age of Reason
18.2 Enlightenment ideas spread by
šCulture (middle and upper classes; Peasants remained what they had always been…)
18.3 Britain, mid 1700s
Whigs (liberals-enlightenment ideas) and Tories (conservatives)
Cabinet made up of leaders of the majority party in the House of Commons, rule as long as Commons supports them
Head of the cabinet is the Prime Minister
George III (reigned 1760-1820) asserts royal power; North American colonists must pay for their own defense
18.4 Birth of the American Republic
Thomas Paine, Common Sense. Got Colonists debating
French and Indian War required British troops; Britain thought colonies should pay for their defense
Stamp Act, tax on tea, “No taxation without representation”
1775 fighting breaks out; Continental Congress convened. John Adams, Geo. Washington, Ben Franklin, Tom Jefferson
Continental Congress set up an army, declared independence from Britain
“We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. That to secure these rights, governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed.”
This led to war. It looked bleak for colonists. British had professional soldiers, huge fleet, money, 1/3 of colonists were Loyalists. Continental Army had little money for its soldiers, but they were fighting for their own land.
Turning point: French alliance 1781 Yorktown 1783 Treaty of Paris US independent, Mississippi is w. border
Articles of Confederation become Constitution 1787, 1789 ratified
The impact of Enlightenment ideas:
oLocke: a republic; government rules by consent of the governed. Revolt when government becomes destructive of natural rights.
oMontesquieu: separation of executive, legislative and judicial branches
oThe US Constitution and its republic shone as a symbol of freedom to European countries and Central America.
oIn France, 1789, a revolution in the name of liberty and equality toppled the monarchy.
oBy the mid-1800s, most absolute monarchs across Europe would see their powers greatly reduced