Review 2 for World History Final





Greek Vocabulary
  • Comedy. Dramas that mock people or customs with satire
  • Rhetoric. The art of skillful speaking
  • Oligarchy
    Rule by the few, usually rich merchants
  • Polis
    A Greek city-state
  • Tragedy
    Plays that told stories of human suffering and usually ended in disaster
  • legislature
    The branch of government that passes laws
  • Strait   narrow passage by water
  • Oligarchy
    Rule by the few, (often meant selfish and greedy rule)
  • Phalanx    unit of soldiers acting in harmony
  • Acropolis   Temples set on the top part of the city
  • Aristocracy is rule by the best people, who are usually wealthy (have land) and educated
  • Democracy
    “Demos” = Greek for people
    Cracy = to rule
    Democracy is rule by the people…
  • Tyrant
    Person who gains power by force, and usually rules unfairly and cruelly


  • Classical Era - Greece
  • Geography: coastlines, rugged mountains (led to development of city-states)
  • Athens (culture) v. Sparta (military)
  • Golden Age under Pericles
  • They united to defeat Persia, then Athens led (Delian League, to guard against Persia…)
  • Peloponnesian Wars (between Athens, Sparta) it brought the end to Athenian greatness
  • Philosophers: Socrates, Plato, Aristotle
  • Alexander the Great: spread Greek culture
  • Hellenism: Greek, Persian, Indian, Egyptian
  • Socratic method   Asking ?s
    To help others seek truth and self-knowledge
  • Hellenistic civilization: Greek, Persian, Indian, and Egyptian
  • Alexander spread Greek culture into Persia


Roman Empire

  • Punic Wars, Hannibal attacks w elephants
  • Pax Romana, The 200-year period of peace, order, and prosperity
  • Spread of Christianity
  • Edict of Milan ended C. persecution
  • Constantine moved capital from Rome to Constantinople, west then declined
  • Romans; great builders aqueducts
  • Roman Vocab
    legion – 5000
    patrician – the upper class
    plebian – the lower class
    heresy – teachings contrary to Church
    veto – say no! block!
    sect – small group
    Messiah – Saviour
    martyr – dying for cause
    republic – citizens elect their reps

The Americas…

  • Incan roads were well-kept, for armies and news to move rapidly throughout the empire
  • Aztecs, Mayans, Incas (AMI)
  • Aztecs, Mexico
  • Mayans, Yucatan (how did they decline?)
  • Incas, in the Andes
  • Earliest – Olmecs, carved stone heads



    • Europe rich in land, forests
    • Norman conquest—Domesday book-taxes
    • Manor economy - Self-sufficient
  • Power of church - salvation
  • Crusades
    • –– attacking Holy land, ousting Muslims –- trade increased with Middle East
    Church Schism- Catholic v. Orthodox (marry)
  • Black Plague (rats) – killed 1/3 of Europe (Jews)
  • Inquisition- heretics tortured
  • Magna Carta – put king under law
  • 100 years war – France and England
  • Late Middle Age losers: feudalism, church
  • New farming techniques –population increase
  • Monasteries and churches provided education, services
  • As trade fairs increased, feudalism declined, and a new merchant class arose
  • Because of Dark Ages in Europe, Islam kept the classics and scientific advances
  • (Mongol rule in Russia cut off contact with Western Europe)
  • Classical   -  Romanesque   - Gothic


  • Monotheistic like Judaism, Christianity
  • Five Pillars of Islam (Mohammad a prophet)
    prayer, charity, Allah, fast, haj (at least once)
  • Quran –Authoritative! written in Arabic
  • Order of origin: Hinduism - Judaism - Christian - Islam
  • Hejira – 622 M. flees from Mecca to Medinah
  • Ottomans (Islamic) conquered Byzantine empire and made it great center of Islamic culture

    Covenant – binding agreement
    Hierarchy – ranking from top down
    Mercenary – foreigner fighting for pay
    Reincarnation – rebirth with new life
    Schism – split
    Vernacular – everyday language
  • ORDER: Greece, Rome, Crusades, Mongols